Biology Chapter 10 Test

The larger a cell becomes, the more demands it puts on its DNA and the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane
What are the two main reasons why cells divide rather than grow indefinitely?
The series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
What is the cell cycle?
G1, S, G2, and M
What are the 4 phases of the cell cycle?
The “in-between” period of growth
What is interphase?
G1, S, and G2
What are the three phases of interphase?
The cell does most of its growing, it increases in size, and it synthesizes new proteins and organelles
What happens in the G1 phase?
The chromosomes are replicated and DNA synthesis takes place
What happens in the S phase?
When the DNA replication is complete
When does the G2 phase start>
The organelles and molecules needed for cell division are produced,
What happens in the G2 phase?
Cell divison
What is the M phase also known as>
THe process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
What is cell division or the M phase?
Interphase
Which is the longest phase of the cell cycle?
G2
Which is the shortest phase of interphase>
Mitosis and cytokinesis
What are the two phases of cell division?
the division of the nucleus
What is mitosis?
division of the cytoplasm
What is cytokinesis>
THe Dna must be replicated (S phase)
What must happen before cell division takes place?
A button-like center that holds the chromatids to form a chromosome
What is the centromere?
Genetic information from one generation of cells to the next
What do chromosomes carry?
DNA and proteins
What are chromosomes made of?
One of two identical “sister” parts of a duplicated chromosome
What are the sister chromatids?
They seperate from each other, one going to each of the two new cells
When cell divides, what happens to the sister chromatids?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
What are the 4 phases of mitosis?
The chromosomes become visible, the centrioles seperate and move to opposite sides of the cell, the spindle begins to form, and the nuclear envelope and nucleolus breaks down
What happens during prophase?
Chromosomes line up across the middle of the cell
What happens during metaphase?
The centromeres split and chromatids split, and individual chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell
What happens during anaphase?
The chromosomes begin to break down into a tangle of material, the nuclear envelope reforms around each cluster of chromosomes, the spindle breaks apart, and the nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter nucleus
What happens during telophase?
Prophase and Telophase
Which two phases of mitosis are opposites?
prophase
Which is the longest phase of mitosis?
only a few minutes
How long does metaphase last?
When the chromosomes stop moving
When does anaphase stop?
No, only mitosis
After telophase, is cell division complete?
A protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
What is cyclin?
Internal and external
What are the two types of regulators?
Proteins that respond to events inside the cell
What are internal regulators?
Internal regulators
Which proteins make sure the cell doesn’t enter mitosis before the DNA has been copied?
Proteins that respond to events outside the cell
What are external regulators?
They direct the cell to speed up or slow doen the cell cycle, and they prevent excessive cell growth.
What are two things that external regulators do?
A disorder in which some of the body’s own cells lose the ability to control growth
What is cancer?
They divide uncontrollably and form masses of cells that can damage surrounding tissue
Because cancer cells don’t respond to the signals that regulate the growth of moth cells, what happens?
Masses of cells that can damage surrounding tissue.
What are tumors?

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