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chapter 10 learning exercises









esthet/o
feeling
encephal/o
brain
contus/o
bruise
psycho/o
mind
concuss/o
shaken together
mening/o
brain covering
-graphy
process of producing a picture
-esthesia
sensation, feeling
myel/o
spinal cord
radicul/o
nerve root
phobia
abnormal fear
caus/o
buring sensation
cerebr/o
brain
neur/o
nerve, nerves
-tropic
having an affinity for
synapse
space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ
myelin sheath
white protective covering over some parts of the spinal cord and the axon of most peripheral nerves
dendrites
root-like structures of a nerve that receive impulses to the brain and spinal cord
pia meter
layer of the meninges that is located nearest to the brain and spinal cord
hypothalamus
seven vital body functions are regulated
sympathetic
nerves are the division of the autonomic nervous system that prepare the body for emergencies and stress
plexus
network of intersecting nerves
peripheral
cranial nerves are part of the __ nervous system
thalamus
relays sensory stimuli from the spinal cord and midbrain to the cerebral cortex
efferent
neurons carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord
brainstem
connects the brain and spinal cord
hypothalamus
controls vital body functions
cerebellum
coordinates muscular activity
medulla oblongata
controls basic survival functions
cerebrum
uppermost layer of the brain
anesthesiologist
physician who specializes in admistering anesthetic agents
coma
profound state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli, and the lack of speech
anxiolytic
drug aka as tranquilizer
hallucination
sensory perception that has no basis in exernal stimulation
excessive fear of heights
acrophobia
migraine
headache characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head
alzheimer’s
group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language
anesthetic
medication used to induce anesthesia
epilepsy
chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying severity
sciatica
nerve inflammation that results in pain, burning, and tingling through thr thigh, leg, and foot
delirium
acute condition that is characterized by confusin, disorientation, disordered thinking and memory, agitation, and hallucinations
myelitis
inflammation of spinal cord also means inflammation of bone marrow
claustrophobia
abnormal fear of being in small or enclosed spaces
trigeminal neuralgia
severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the 5th cranial nerve
dyslexia
developmental reading disorder
cerebral contusion
brusing of brain tissue as the result of a head injury
anxiety disorders
excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations or fear that is out of proportion to the real dange ina situation
dysthymia
low-grade chronic depression with symptoms that are milder than those of severe depression but are present on a majority of days for two or more years
factitous
disorder is a condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not really sick
antipsychotic drug
adminstered to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking and mood that are associated with neurological and psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, mania, and delusion disorders
somambulism
sleepwalking
electroencephalography
process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes attached to the scalp
paresthesia
refers to burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet
poliomyelitis
contagious viral infection of the brainstem and spinal cord, which can lead to paralysis
hemorrhagic stroke
occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks
absence seizure
brief disturbance in brain function in which there is a loss of awareness
psyhotropic drug
acts primarlly on the central nervous system where it produces temporary changes affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior
bipolar disorder
moods shifts
concussion
jarring of the brain can cause
transient ischemic
attack and her doctors were concerned that this is a warning of an increased stroke risk
thalamotomy
surgical incision into the thalamus
multiple sclerosis
autoimmune disease is characterized bhy inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath
insomia
unable to sleep well
aphasia
unable to understand written or spoken words
syncope
brief loss of ocnsciousness caused by the decreased blood flow to the brain
hyrocephalus
abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain
hematoma
collection of blood trapped in the tissues of her brain caused by a head injury
causaliga
severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
hypnotic
drug that depresses the CNS and usally produces sleep
conversion
serious temporary or ongoing changes in function such as paralysis or blindness
epidural
anesthesia is administered to numb the nerves form the uterus and birth passages without stopping labor
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling the voluntary muscles
neuromyelitis
inflammation of the nerves and spinal cord
meningomalacia
softening of the meninges
neuroma
benign neoplasm made up of nerve tisse
encephalopathy
degenerative disease of the brain
polyneuralgia
pain affecting many nerves
nueromalacia
softening of nerve tissue
meingoencephalitis
inflammation of the meninges and the brain
myelopathy
pathological condition of the spinal cord
encephalomalacia
softening of the brain
meningoencephalomyelitis
inflammation of the meninges, brain, and spinal cord