Chapter 23

What are some of the rights that the Declaration of Rights of Man guarantees French citizens?
Liberty property security and resistance to oppression
What caused peasants to oppose many of the reforms of the church
The peasants believed in the church and preferred to follow the guidance on matters of tradition and spirituality
What did European monarchs fear from France?
They worried that peasant revolts similar to the ones in France could break out in their own countries
What political factions made up the legislative assembly?
Radicals moderates and conservatives
What effects did that September massacres have on the government?
The national convention was created, France became a republic, and men gained the right to vote
What was the stated aim of Robes Pierre and his supporters?
To build a “Republic of virtue” by wiping out every trace of France’s past
What were some consequences of the Reign of Terror?
Robespierre was arrested and executed.
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution
What were the goals and results of the establishment of the national bank and an efficent tax collection system in France?
Their goals were to build a stable economy and equality in taxes. Their results were that paper money of uncertain value flooded the country’s economy.
What were the goals and results of enacting the Napoleonic code of law?
The goal was to create a uniform law across all of France that was published and available to all and contained no secret exceptions. The result was that laws were clearer and more accessible and it also superseded the former conflict between royal legislative power.
Reign of terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
a direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum
a signed written agreement between two or more parties (nations) to perform some action
Napoleonic Code
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson
considered to be the most advanced country of Europe
the center of the Enlightenment
Old Regime
the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
France’s three social classes
First Estate
Catholic Clergy, exempt from taxes
Second Estate
Nobility, exempt from taxes
Third Estate
97% of the population (the rest of France) They consisted of the bourgeoisie, the san-culottes and the peasants; they paid high taxes and had no special privileges
First group of the Third Estate
Second group of the Third Estate
workers of france’s cities; poorest; tradespeople, apprentices, laborers, domestic servants; low wages; not alot of food.
they formed the largest group of the Third Estate
they quoted Rousseau and Voltaire and began demanded equality, liberty, and democracy
this is how Enlightenment ideas forced change
economic troubles in France
increase in cost of living, taxes, shortage of grain, crop failures. these are examples of ________ ________ __ ______
Louis XVI
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793) She gambled and left huge debt
Estates General
France’s traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of this in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
the staple of the diet of the common people of France
clergy and the nobles
they dominated the Estates General
Third Estate
the two privileged estates could always outvote this estate
the Third Estate delegates, mostly members of the ___________ whose views had been shaped by the Enlightenment
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes
(During the Estates-General) a leading spokesperson for the viewpoint of the Third Estate who was a clergyman sympathetic to their cause
National Assembly
Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
June 17, 1789
Third estate declares itself the National Assembly.
the establishment of the National Assembly
this vote was the first deliberate act of revolution
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
July 14, 1789
Bastile Day. The day the people stormed the Bastille Prison which was also an armory that stored all the guns and powder. Similar to our 4th of July. Celebrated today as Independence Day in France.
Great Fear
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Slogan of the French Revolution
Olympe de Gouges
she published a declaration of the rights of women
Many of the National Assembly’s early reforms focused on the ______
selling the church’s land
this is how France helped pay off their huge debt
this part of France’s population was offended because they though the pope should rule over a church independent of the state.
limited constutional monarchy
the National Assembly drafted a new constitution, what type of government was established?
legislative assembly
A French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
food shortages and government debt
even with a new government, France still experienced these problems
radicals, moderates, and conservatives
three general groups of the Legislative Assembly
sat on left and opposed the idea of a monarchy and wanted sweeping changes
sat in the center and wanted some changes
sat on the right side and upheld the idea of a limited monarchy and a few changes
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
those without breeches. they were small shopkeepers that wanted the Revolution to bring even higher changes to France. They did not have a role in the assembly
(T/F) The war began badly for the French
Paris palace into which the royal family was forced to take up residence
September Massacres
Event in which angry mobs invaded the prisons of Paris and slaughtered the priests and aristocrats suspected of treason
National Convention
A new governing body that was established after the Legislative Assembly disposed of the constitution and monarchy
Constitution of 1791
Under pressure from radicals in the streets and among its members, the Legislative Assembly set aside the ___________ of ____ (year)
radical political organization
L’Ami du Peuple
newspaper edited by Jean-Paul Marat that translated to friend of the people
Georges Danton
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror
king to common citizen/prisoner
The National Convention had reduced Louis XVI’s role from that of a ____ to ______ ______/________
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Battle of Valmy
Disorganized French armies won a moral victory (not really much more than an artillery duel) vs. the Prussians. Blocked the Prussian march on Paris. French armies then went on to occupy the Austrian Netherlands, Savoy(king of Sardinia had joined Austrians) and Mainz.
Maximilien Robespierre
“The incorruptible;” the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build “a republic of virtue.”
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
he suggested that it enabled French citizens to remain true to the ideals of the Revolution
this is how Robespierre justified his use of terror
fellow radicals
“enemies of the Revolution” according to Robespierre
The Terror
Term used to describe the revolutionary violence in France, when radicals under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre executed tens of thousands of people deemed enemies of the revolution.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France
five “great powers”
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria’s foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression. He was the most influential of the representatives of the Congress of Vienna
balance of power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
three goals of the congress of vienna
surround France with strong countries, balance of power, restore royal families to thrones
Political authority conferred by law or by a state or national constitution
the congress of vienna
this created a time of peace in Europe that would last for 40 years
the congress of vienna was a victory for this group of people
Holy Alliance
agreement promoted by Czar Alexander I, by which most European powers promised to uphold Christian virtues like peace and charity. Only Britain, Turkey, and the Pope refused to join the Holy Alliance. However, few took the agreement very seriously.
Concert of Europe
A series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
the revolution; no
this had given Europe its first experiment in democratic government; did it work? (yes or no)
the Congress of Vienna left a feeling of
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
the cultural capital of Europe
Marie-Therese Geoffrin
Famous Salon hostess. Invited brilliant minds including Voltaire, Baron de Montesquieu, and Diderot. Made exchange of ideas fashionable.
Denis Diderot
Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
the arts (music, literature, painting, and architecture)
the Enlightenment ideals were reflected in this
An artistic style of the seventeenth century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements
baroque styles could be seen in elaborate palaces such as this
A revival of the literary, architectural, musical, and artistic forms that are considered a standard or model, and therefore “classical”
Pamela (by Samuel Richardson)
considered the first true English novel
enlightened despots (“absolute ruler”)
Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Catherine the great
An “enlightened despot” of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs
Frederick the great
King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress. Enlightened despot
Joseph II
son of Maria Theresa, granted religious freedom and abolished serfdom

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