Chapter 4

At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the
company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own.
A.
fear; similar
B.
enjoy; different
C.
fear; different
D.
enjoy; simila

A
2.
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, in an aspect of our
A.
temperament.
B.
gender schema.
C.
environment.
D.
personal space.

C
3. The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development of our personal values best illustrates the influence of
A. temperament.
B. individualism.
C. personal space.
D. the environment.

D
4. The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality
traits is known as
A. molecular genetics.
B. evolutionary psychology.
C. behavior genetics.
D. gender typing.

C
5. A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on
A. skin color.
B. sexual anatomy.
C. physical attractiveness.
D. personality traits.

D
6. A human sperm cell contains
A. 23 chromosomes.
B. 23 genes.
C. 46 chromosomes.

A
7. Chromosomes are contained within
A. brain cells.
B. sperm cells.
C. blood cells.
D. all of these types of cells.

D
8. DNA is a complex
A. sex hormone.
B. gender schema.
C. molecule.
D. synapse.

C
9. The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called
A. genes.
B. schemas.
C. teratogens.
D. neurotransmitters

A
10. A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a
A. gene.
B. gender schema.
C. chromosome.
D. neurotransmitter.

A
11. Depending on environmental conditions, specific genes can be either
A. norms or schemas.
B. active or inactive.
C. identical or fraternal.
D. X chromosomes or Y chromosomes.

B
12. The genome is the complete
A. collection of sexual characteristics regulated by the X and Y chromosomes.
B. range of traits that contribute to reproductive success.
C. set of genetic material in an organism’s chromosomes.
D. set of interactions between genes and environments.

C
13. Identical twins originate from the fertilization of
A. a single egg cell by a single sperm cell.
B. two egg cells by a single sperm cell.
C. a single egg cell by two sperm cells.
D. two egg cells by two sperm cells.

A
14. Identical twins are most likely to share a similar prenatal environment if they share the same
A. placenta.
B. reproductive capacity.
C. norms.
D. gender schemas.

A
15. Dante is healthier than his twin brother because he developed with a better placental barrier against viruses. This
best illustrates the impact of ________ on development.
A. temperament
B. gender schemas
C. prenatal environment
D. genetic predispositions

C
16. Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease is influenced by
A. testosterone.
B. gender schemas.
C. heredity.
D. gender typing.

C
17. Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk
of divorcing.
A. more; less
B. less; more
C. more; more
D. less; less

D
18. Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in
A. extraversion.
B. neuroticism.
C. temperament.
D. all of these characteristics.

D
19. Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing
A. identical twins raised apart with fraternal twins raised apart.
B. identical twins raised together with fraternal twins raised together.
C. identical twins raised apart with fraternal twins raised together.
D. identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart.

D
Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be
cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because
A. the twins may have been raised in completely different environments.
B. genetic factors influence physical, not psychological, characteristics.
C. any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.
D. many fraternal twins have been shown to be psychologically different from each other.

C
21. The personalities of adopted children
A. are very similar to the personalities of the other children in their adoptive families.
B. are very similar to the personalities of their biologically related siblings.
C. are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents.
D. are more similar to the personalities of their caregiving adoptive parents than to the personalities of their
biological parents.

C
22. The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children’s ________ than on their ________.
A. temperament; political attitudes
B. extraversion; table manners
C. religious beliefs; personality traits
D. gender identity; gender schemas

C
23. Research most clearly suggests that personality traits are more strongly influenced by
A. genes than by home environment.
B. home environment than by genes.
C. genes than by peers.
D. home environment than by peers.

A
24. An infant’s temperament refers most directly to its
A. ability to learn.
B. social connectedness.
C. emotional excitability.
D. physical health.

C
25. The labels “easy,” “difficult,” and “slow-to-warm-up” are used to refer to differences in an infant’s
A. gender schema.
B. personal space.
C. temperament.
D. gender typing.

C
26. Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most
clearly differ in
A. sex chromosomes.
B. gender schemas.
C. temperament.
D. gender roles.

C
27. Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be
A. intelligent and imaginative.
B. irritable and unpredictable.
C. fearless and assertive.
D. extraverted and cheerful.

B
28. A child’s temperament is likely to be
A. difficult to observe.
B. stable over time.
C. a product of parenting style.
D. a reflection of his or her gender schema.

B
29. Who are likely to show the greatest similarity in temperament?
A. Ruth and Ramona, identical twins
B. Philip and Paul, fraternal twins
C. Larry and Laura, brother and sister
D. Vincent Sr. and Vincent Jr., father and son

A
30. To estimate trait heritability, researchers are most likely to make use of
A. the pruning process.
B. gender schemas.
C. gender typing.
D. twin studies.

D
31. Heritability refers to the extent to which
A. unrelated individuals share common genes.
B. genetic mutations can be transmitted to one’s offspring.
C. trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
D. adult personality is determined by infant temperament.

C
32. The heritability of a specific trait will be greatest among
A. genetically similar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.
B. genetically similar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments.
C. genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.
D. genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments.

C
33. Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic
differences because
A. physical maturation proceeds at a different rate for males and females.
B. variations in temperament contribute to gender differences.
C. heritable traits can be influenced by social environments.
D. males and females are also affected by their different sex hormones.

C
34. An African butterfly that is green in the summer turns brown in the fall thanks to a temperature-controlled genetic
switch. This best illustrates that genes are
A. schemas.
B. self-regulating.
C. gender typed.
D. protein molecules.

B
35. The unique temperaments of children evoke predictable responses from their caregivers. This best illustrates the
________ of nature and nurture.
A. evolution
B. interaction
C. heritability
D. independence

B
36. People have always responded so positively to Alyssa’s good looks that she has developed a socially confident
and outgoing personality. This best illustrates
A. the impact of temperament on gender identity.
B. that gender schemas and social roles are complementary.
C. the interaction of nature and nurture.
D. the reciprocal influence of norms and roles.

C
37. Assessing possible links between specific chromosome segments and alcohol dependence would be of greatest
interest to a(n)
A. evolutionary psychologist.
B. molecular geneticist.
C. collectivist.
D. social learning theorist.

B
38. Identifying specific DNA sequences associated with the traits of anger and anxiety best illustrates a potential
benefit of
A. plasticity.
B. the pruning process.
C. gender typing.
D. molecular behavior genetics.

D
39. The ability to provide would-be parents with information regarding their fetus’ risk for a learning disorder is a
potential benefit of
A. gender typing.
B. evolutionary psychology.
C. molecular behavior genetics.
D. social learning theory.

C
40. Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
A. social learning theory.
B. gender typing.
C. temperament.
D. natural selection.

D
41. The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
A. self-regulation.
B. behavior genetics.
C. natural selection.
D. collectivism.

C
42. Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
A. heritability.
B. selective mating.
C. gene splicing.
D. hormone injections.

B
43. Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphasize that human adaptiveness to a variety of different
environments has contributed to human
A. gender typing.
B. genetic mutations.
C. gender schemas.
D. reproductive success.

D
44. A random error in gene replication is known as a
A. gender schema.
B. genome.
C. mutation.
D. natural selection.

C
45. Our adaptive flexibility in responding to different environments contributes to our fitness, which refers to
A. random errors in the replication of genes.
B. the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes.
C. our ability to survive and reproduce.
D. the interaction of our genes with our environment.

C
46. If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to
subsequent generations. This best illustrates
A. gender typing.
B. natural selection.
C. behavior genetics.
D. collectivism.

B
47. An evolutionary psychologist would suggest that people are genetically predisposed to
A. fear dangerous animals.
B. love their own children.
C. seek healthy-looking mates.
D. do all of these things.

D
48. According to evolutionary psychologists, behaviors that promote reproductive success are likely to be
A. socially prohibited.
B. genetically predisposed.
C. ecologically disruptive.
D. disease-producing.

B
49. According to evolutionary psychologists, our predisposition to overconsume fatty junk foods illustrates that we
are biologically prepared to behave in ways that promoted the ________ of our ancestors.
A. gender typing
B. personal space
C. reproductive success
D. neuroticism

C
50. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that
A. more people are biologically predisposed to fear guns than to fear snakes.
B. children are more likely to be valued by their biological fathers than by their stepfathers.
C. people are the most romantically attracted to those who are the most genetically dissimilar to themselves.
D. genetic predispositions have little effect on our social relationships.

B
51. Compared with women, men are more likely to
A. initiate sexual activity.
B. think about sex.
C. comply with direct requests for casual sex.
D. behave in all of these ways.

D
52. Compared with women, men are ________ likely to feel comfortable about having casual sex with different
partners and ________ likely to cite affection as a reason for their first sexual intercourse.
A. less; more
B. more; less
C. less; less
D. more; more

B
53. Compared with men, women are ________ likely to agree to go to bed with a stranger and ________ likely to
perceive simple friendliness as a sexual come-on.
A. more; less
B. more; more
C. less; more
D. less; less

D
54. Professor Assad suggested that a cautious attitude toward sexual encounters has proven to be more reproductively
advantageous to women than to men because the birth process is time-consuming. This suggestion best illustrates
the logic of a(n) ________ theory of sexual behavior.
A. evolutionary
B. social learning
C. Freudian
D. role

A
55. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex to
the fact that men have ________ than do women.
A. more gender schemas
B. stronger gender identity
C. less individualism
D. greater reproductive potential

D
56. Males in their ________ are most likely to be sexually attracted to women who are several years older rather than
several years younger than themselves.
A. teens.
B. twenties.
C. thirties.
D. forties.

A
57. Women are most likely to be sexually attracted to men who seem
A. shy.
B. emotionally reactive and intense.
C. interested in casual, uncommitted sex.
D. mature and affluent.

D
58. Brittla spends a lot of money on cosmetics and expensive clothing in order to attract a desirable mate. According
to evolutionary psychologists, Brittla’s behavior is a product of
A. individualism.
B. collectivism.
C. gender schemas.
D. genetic predispositions.

D
59. Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it underestimates the
A. impact of genetic predispositions on human sexual behavior.
B. impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behavior.
C. variety of traits that contribute to reproductively successful behaviors.
D. extent to which certain gender differences in sexual behavior are common to all

B
60. Those who defend evolutionary psychology against criticism are most likely to suggest that evolutionary
principles
A. generate testable predictions.
B. are intended to be descriptive but not explanatory.
C. are more applicable to men than to women.
D. are more applicable to humans than to nonhuman animal species.

A
61. Compared to environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a
dramatic increase in the number of their
A. genomes.
B. schemas.
C. synapses.
D. sex hormones.

C
62. Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence, a person will never master any language due to the
________ of unemployed neural connections.
A. natural selection
B. mutation
C. pruning
D. temperament

C
63. For children from impoverished environments, stimulating educational experiences during early childhood are
most likely to
A. facilitate the development of collectivism.
B. decrease their emotional attachment to their own parents.
C. have no discernable effect on subsequent academic performance.
D. prevent the degeneration of activated connections between neurons.

D
64. Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies
that we should be cautious about attributing personality to
A. gender schemas.
B. parental influences.
C. temperament.
D. peer influences.

B
65. An awareness that children’s temperaments influence parents’ child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency
to
A. emphasize the interaction of nature and nurture.
B. assess the stability of personality traits.
C. blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics.
D. identify cultural differences in child-rearing practices

C
66. It has been suggested that our sensitivity to peer influence is genetically predisposed because it has facilitated the
process of human mating. This suggestion best illustrates
A. gender schemas.
B. collectivism.
C. gender typing.
D. an evolutionary perspective.

D
67. Kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. This best illustrates
A. gender typing.
B. a selection effect.
C. personal space.
D. temperament.

B
68. In comparison to parental influence, peer influence is
A. more likely to affect a child’s educational success.
B. less likely to affect whether a teen smokes.
C. more likely to affect a child’s English language accent.
D. less likely to influence whether a preschooler will reject a certain food.

C
69. Cultural diversity best illustrates our
A. human temperaments.
B. genetic variations.
C. gender identities.
D. adaptive capacities.

D
70. The invention and transmission of dating and courtship customs best illustrate
A. personal space.
B. cultural influence.
C. the priming process.
D. the male answer syndrome.

B
71. The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of
A. culture.
B. gender schemas.
C. individualism.
D. personal space.

A
72. Norms are best described as
A. the biochemical units of heredity.
B. a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity.
C. rules for socially acceptable behavior.
D. buffer zones we like to maintain between ourselves and others.

C
73. Frans avoids talking with food in his mouth because other people think it is crude and inappropriate. This best
illustrates the impact of
A. individualism.
B. schemas.
C. stereotypes.
D. norms.

D
74. Personal space refers to
A. our inner private thoughts and personally subjective feelings about ourselves.
B. the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people.
C. the priority we give to our own personal needs over group needs.
D. areas of a home, such as a bedroom, where privacy is important.

B
75. Studies indicate that
A. North Americans prefer more personal space than do Latin Americans.
B. the French prefer more personal space than do the British.
C. Arabs prefer more personal space than do Scandinavians.
D. women prefer more personal space than do men.

A
76. Compared with northern Europeans, people from Mediterranean cultures are
A. more likely to be emotionally expressive and more likely to be punctual.
B. less likely to be emotionally expressive and less likely to be punctual.
C. more likely to be emotionally expressive and less likely to be punctual.
D. less likely to be emotionally expressive and more likely to be punctual.

C
77. Since 1960, most Western cultures have changed with remarkable speed. The LEAST likely explanation for these
variations involves changes in
A. communication systems.
B. genetic predispositions.
C. scientific knowledge.
D. social norms.

B
78. Since 1960, Americans have experienced a(n)
A. increase in the incidence of depression and a decrease in work hours.
B. decrease in the incidence of depression and an increase in work hours.
C. increase in the incidence of depression and an increase in work hours.
D. decrease in the incidence of depression and a decrease in work hours.

C
79. Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.
A. norm; role
B. nature; nurture
C. independence; interdependence
D. identical twin; fraternal twin

C
80. A willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the
consequences of
A. collectivism.
B. gender typing.
C. individualism.
D. gender schemas.

C
81. A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of
A. social harmony.
B. personal privacy.
C. innovation and creativity.
D. racial diversity.

A
82. People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in individualist cultures to report
experiencing
A. happiness.
B. family loyalty.
C. personal freedom.
D. marital romance.

B
83. Professor Shankar believes that her students’ most important personal characteristics are those that distinguish
them as uniquely different from most other people. Her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of
A. individualism.
B. gender typing.
C. collectivism.
D. temperament.

A
84. When Mr. Thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he received from
people simply because he was an older person. His sense of surprise suggests that he had NOT previously lived in
a culture characterized by
A. social diversity.
B. collectivism.
C. extraversion.
D. individualism.

B
85. Compared with people in individualist cultures, those in collectivist cultures are
A. less likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to others’ wishes.
B. more likely to display signs of humility and less likely to defer to others’ wishes.
C. less likely to display signs of humility and less likely to defer to others’ wishes.
D. more likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to others’ wishes.

D
86. Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by
A. gender schemas.
B. individualism.
C. gender typing.
D. collectivism.

B
87. The importance of romance in marriage relationships is most strongly emphasized in cultures characterized by
A. gender schemas.
B. collectivism.
C. gender typing.
D. individualism.

D
88. Compared with many Asian and African parents, today’s Westernized parents are more likely to teach their
children to value
A. civil obedience.
B. emotional closeness.
C. personal independence.
D. family traditions.

C
89. Parents in Asian cultures are more likely than parents in Westernized cultures to encourage children to
A. pick out and purchase their own clothes.
B. participate in household activities.
C. publicly protest repressive government policies.
D. establish close friendships with ethnically diverse groups of people.

B
90. Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that
A. person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups.
B. differences among cultural groups largely reflect genetic differences among racial groups.
C. gender differences in behavior result from differences in biology rather than from differences in life
experiences.
D. developmental processes differ greatly among individuals raised in different cultures.

A
91. In considering gender differences, it is helpful to remember that
A. there are no gender differences in behavior that are common to all human cultures.
B. genetic similarities between the genders are much greater than genetic differences.
C. genetic differences between the genders do not contribute to gender differences in behavior.
D. all of these statements are true.

B
92. Compared with men, women experience a greater risk of
A. autism.
B. color blindness.
C. eating disorders.
D. antisocial personality disorders.

C
93. Men and women are most likely to differ in their
A. happiness.
B. intelligence.
C. self-esteem.
D. aggressiveness.

D
94. The gender gap in aggression is least likely to involve hurting others by means of
A. painful electric shocks.
B. verbal insults.
C. expressing support for war.
D. physical spanking.

B
95. Which of the following would you MOST likely observe on extended visits to foreign countries?
A. men and women earning approximately the same salaries
B. more women than men holding elected offices
C. more men than women engaged in fistfights
D. men and women sharing equally in the duties of child-rearing

C
96. In everyday behavior, men are LESS likely than women to
A. smile at others.
B. stare at others.
C. interrupt others.
D. initiate touching others.

A
97. During the course of a conversation between Lola, Martha, and Gus, which of the following events is most likely
to occur?
A. Gus interrupts Lola.
B. Lola interrupts Martha.
C. Martha interrupts Gus.
D. All of these events are equally likely to occur.

A
98. Girls typically play in ________ groups than do boys and, during their teens, girls spend ________ time with
friends than do boys.
A. larger; more
B. smaller; less
C. larger; less
D. smaller; more

D
99. The male answer syndrome suggests that males are less likely than females to demonstrate
A. individualism.
B. gender typing.
C. social modesty.
D. reactive temperaments.

C
100. Compared with females, males use conversation to
A. explore relationships.
B. communicate solutions.
C. obtain feedback on their views.
D. offer support.

B
101. When looking for someone to whom they can confide their personal worries, women usually turn to ________
and men usually turn to ________.
A. men; men
B. women; men
C. women; women
D. men; women

c
102. Women are more likely than men to
A. stare at people who make them angry.
B. interrupt others while they are talking.
C. misperceive simple friendliness as a sexual come-on.
D. tend and befriend.

D
103. As people progress through adulthood, women become
A. less assertive and men become less empathic.
B. less assertive and men become more empathic.
C. more assertive and men become more empathic.
D. more assertive and men become less empathic.

C
104. A human egg contains ________ chromosome and a human sperm contains ________ chromosome.
A. a Y; either an X or a Y
B. either an X or a Y; an X
C. an X; either an X or a Y
D. either an X or a Y; a Y

C
105. Prenatal testosterone secretions exert one of their earliest influences on
A. genes.
B. natural selection.
C. gender schemas.
D. brain organization.

D
106. Gender differences in verbal fluency are consistent with evidence that part of the
A. frontal lobes is thicker in men than in women.
B. parietal lobes is thicker in men than in women.
C. frontal lobes is thicker in women than in men.
D. parietal lobes is thicker in women than in men.

C
107. Gender differences in spatial perception skills are consistent with evidence that part of the
A. frontal cortex is thicker in men than in women.
B. parietal cortex is thicker in men than in women.
C. frontal cortex is thicker in women than in men.
D. parietal cortex is thicker in women than in men.

B
108. Female children are more likely to act like tomboys if they were exposed to excess ________ during their
prenatal development.
A. DNA.
B. testosterone.
C. endorphins.
D. ovarian hormones.

B
109. An infant boy was raised as a girl following a botched circumcision. During adolescence, the child ________
boys and ________ the assigned female identity.
A. wanted to kiss; accepted
B. wanted to kiss; did not accept
C. wanted no part of kissing; accepted
D. wanted no part of kissing; did not accept

D
110. Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position define a
A. norm.
B. role.
C. schema.
D. temperament.

B
111. Gender role refers to
A. one’s biological sex.
B. a sense of being male or female.
C. a set of expected behaviors for males and females.
D. a sense of being homosexual or heterosexual.

C
112. When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not
supposed to cry. Waldo’s behavior best illustrates the importance of
A. temperament.
B. gender roles.
C. testosterone.
D. collectivism.

B
113. In agricultural societies, children typically socialize into more distinct gender roles than do children in nomadic
societies. This best illustrates that gender-role differences between social groups result from
A. cultural influence.
B. a pruning process.
C. personal space.
D. individualism.

A
114. The social roles assigned to women and men
A. are virtually the same in all cultures.
B. have been virtually the same in all historical time periods.
C. differ widely across cultures.
D. differ widely across historical time periods but not across cultures.

C
115. Gender identity refers to
A. one’s biological sex.
B. the sense of being male or female.
C. the set of expected behaviors for males and for females.
D. how masculine a boy is or how feminine a girl is.

B
116. A boy who consistently exhibits traditionally masculine interests and behavior patterns demonstrates the impact
of
A. neuroticism.
B. collectivism.
C. the X chromosome.
D. gender typing.

D
117. Ten-year-old Migdalia insists on wearing very feminine-looking clothes because she wants to appear ladylike.
This best illustrates the impact of
A. individualism.
B. personal space.
C. collectivism.
D. gender typing.

D
118. Social learning theorists emphasize that
A. observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process.
B. children will exhibit only those gender-typed behaviors for which they have been directly rewarded.
C. children will not learn gender-typed behaviors if the same-sex parent is absent from the home.
D. all of these statements are true.

a
119. Mr. Eskenazi frowns when his son cries but hugs his daughter when she cries. Mr. Eskenazi’s contribution to the
gender typing of his children would most likely be highlighted by
A. twin studies.
B. social learning theorists.
C. adoption studies.
D. evolutionary psychologists.

b
120. The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a
A. gender role.
B. gender identity.
C. gender schema.
D. gender type.

c
121. Children tend to organize their worlds into male and female categories. This best illustrates their use of
A. the pruning process.
B. behavior genetics.
C. gender schemas.
D. the male answer syndrome.

c
122. When his mother offered to play leapfrog with him, Jorge protested, “I’m not going to play a girl’s game!”
Jorge’s reaction best illustrates the impact of
A. behavior genetics.
B. gender schemas.
C. the pruning process.
D. collectivism.

b
123. Professor Smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a continuous interplay
among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and personally constructed expectations and
assumptions. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates
A. collectivism.
B. individualism.
C. natural selection.
D. a biopsychosocial approach.

d
124. Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the
importance of
A. behavior genetics.
B. human responsibility.
C. personal space.
D. collectivism.

b
125. As members of the human family, we all share a common
A. personal space.
B. gender schema.
C. biological heritage.
D. gender role.

c
126. People’s reactions to our genetic dispositions constitute part of our
A. temperament.
B. environment.
C. individualism.
D. personal space.

b
127. External influences on development such as social support are said to constitute our
A. genome.
B. collectivism.
C. environment.
D. temperament.

c
128. Assessing the relative effects of nature and nurture on individual differences in personality would be of most
direct interest to
A. evolutionary psychologists.
B. collectivists.
C. behavior geneticists.
D. Freudian psychologists.

b
129. The threadlike structures that contain genes are called
A. synapses.
B. schemas.
C. chromosomes.
D. genomes.

c
130. Chromosomes are located within human
A. bone cells.
B. genes.
C. neurotransmitters.
D. gender schemas.

a
131. Genes provide the code for the production of
A. schemas.
B. proteins.
C. synapses.
D. genomes.

b
132. The nucleus of your body cells contains
A. DNA molecules.
B. chromosomes.
C. genes.
D. all of these elements.

d
133. The threadlike structures in the cell nucleus are called
A. genes.
B. proteins.
C. genomes.
D. chromosomes.

d
134. The complete set of genetic instructions in an organism’s chromosomes is called the
A. heritability index.
B. DNA molecule.
C. genome.
D. schema.

c
135. Our genetic predispositions help to explain
A. our shared human nature but not our human diversity.
B. our human diversity but not our shared human nature.
C. neither our shared human nature nor our human diversity.
D. both our shared human nature and our human diversity.

d
136. For every three sets of identical twins, one pair of identical twins is likely to have
A. two different genomes.
B. two separate placentas.
C. an extra set of chromosomes.
D. only one sex chromosome.

b
137. Fraternal twins originate from the fertilization of
A. a single egg cell by a single sperm cell.
B. two egg cells by a single sperm cell.
C. a single egg cell by two sperm cells.
D. two egg cells by two sperm cells.

d
138. Twin studies suggest that a strong influence on emotional instability comes from
A. genetic predispositions.
B. the Y chromosome.
C. gender schemas.
D. testosterone.

a
139. Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are
A. more likely to be the same sex and more likely to be similar in extraversion.
B. more likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
C. less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
D. less likely to be the same sex and equally likely to be similar in extraversion.

c
140. Genetic influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing ________ with ________.
A. identical twins raised together; identical twins raised apart
B. fraternal twins raised together; fraternal twins raised apart
C. identical twins raised together; fraternal twins raised together
D. fraternal twins raised apart; identical twins raised together

c
141. Identical twins reared apart have ________ similar personalities than identical twins reared together and
________ similar personalities than fraternal twins reared apart.
A. more; more
B. less; less
C. more; less
D. less; more

d
142. Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart has most clearly increased scientific appreciation for the
importance of ________ in personality development.
A. testosterone
B. gender schemas
C. home environments
D. genetic influences

d
143. The best reason to be cautious about attributing all the personality similarities of separated twins to genetic
factors is that
A. home environments have less impact on personality than does peer influence.
B. adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes.
C. infant temperaments have a strong impact on personality development.
D. adopted children’s personalities are highly similar to those of their adoptive parents.

b
144. Identical twins separated at birth and raised in completely different cultures would be most likely to have similar
A. gender schemas.
B. religious beliefs.
C. temperaments.
D. norms.

c
145. We are likely to ________ the personality similarities among children in the same family, and we are likely to
________ the personality similarities between parents and their children.
A. overestimate; underestimate
B. underestimate; overestimate
C. underestimate; underestimate
D. overestimate; overestimate

d
146. Adoptive parents are most likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.
A. political attitudes
B. gender identity
C. extraversion
D. temperament

a
147. Adopted children grow up to be
A. more self-giving than average.
B. less psychologically disordered than average.
C. more extraverted than average.
D. less confused about their identity than average.

a
148. Temperament is an individual’s characteristic level of
A. social connectedness.
B. emotional reactivity.
C. physical health.
D. intelligence.

b
149. Our enduring personality traits are first evident in our differing
A. birth weights.
B. gender schemas.
C. temperaments.
D. reproductive capacities.

c
150. Lynnae is usually timid and fearful, whereas her sister Eileen is typically relaxed and cheerful. The two sisters
are most strikingly different in
A. brain maturation.
B. gender schemas.
C. physical health.
D. temperament.

d
151. Exceptionally inhibited and fearful infants tend to become introverted adolescents. This best illustrates the longterm
stability of
A. temperament.
B. individualism.
C. gender schemas.
D. the X chromosome.

a
152. Heredity most clearly predisposes individual differences in
A. norms.
B. gender typing.
C. temperament.
D. personal space.

c
153. Those who inappropriately attribute children’s troubling personality traits to inadequate parental nurture should
be reminded of the importance of
A. gender identity.
B. genetic predispositions.
C. personal space.
D. the X chromosome.

b
154. Behavior geneticists are most likely to use twin and adoption studies to assess
A. gender schemas.
B. trait heritability.
C. reproductive capacity.
D. brain maturation.

b
155. A researcher who assesses the heritability of intelligence is most likely a(n)
A. social learning theorist.
B. evolutionary psychologist.
C. behavior geneticist.
D. collectivist.

c
156. The heritability of a specific trait will be lowest among
A. genetically similar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.
B. genetically similar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments.
C. genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.
D. genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments.

b
157. Today’s adults are taller and heavier than those of a century ago. The differences between these generational
groups illustrate the impact of
A. genetics.
B. nutrition.
C. temperament.
D. the pruning process.

b
158. The diversity of human traits is enabled by our shared
A. individualism.
B. temperament.
C. collectivism.
D. adaptive capacity.

d
159. The impact of genes on observable traits can vary in different environments. Thus, genes are said to be
A. neurotransmitters.
B. gender schemas.
C. self-regulating.
D. chromosome segments.

c
160. Our selective exposure to those life experiences that are best suited to our unique temperaments best illustrates
the interaction of
A. roles and norms.
B. nature and nurture.
C. individualism and collectivism.
D. neural connections and maturation.

b
161. Because Marla is the first girl in her fourth-grade class to sexually mature, she is sometimes teased and rejected
by her classmates. Marla’s sense of social isolation and embarrassment result from the interaction of
A. X and Y chromosomes.
B. nature and nurture.
C. schemas and roles.
D. individualism and collectivism.

b
162. Molecular geneticists would be most interested in studying
A. chromosome segments.
B. collectivism.
C. gender schemas.
D. norms.

a
163. Pinpointing genes that put people at risk for genetically influenced disorders such as depression and
schizophrenia best illustrates the goals of
A. social learning theorists.
B. Freudian psychiatrists.
C. molecular geneticists.
D. evolutionary psychologists.

c
164. The capacity to screen and select human fertilized eggs for such desirable personality traits as friendliness and
emotional stability is one of the potentials of
A. the pruning process.
B. molecular genetics.
C. evolutionary psychology.
D. gender typing.

b
165. Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted
A. reproductive success.
B. personal happiness.
C. cultural diversity.
D. individualism.

a
166. If a genetic predisposition to fear darkness contributes to reproductive success, that trait will likely be passed on
to subsequent generations. This best illustrates
A. collectivism.
B. behavior genetics.
C. gender typing.
D. natural selection.

d
167. The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of
A. gender typing.
B. natural selection.
C. behavior genetics.
D. gender schema.

b
168. Evolutionary psychology would be most helpful for understanding the ________ human aggression.
A. social causes of
B. reproductive advantages of
C. cross-cultural variations of
D. remedial treatments of

b
169. Mutations result from random errors in
A. gender schemas.
B. gene replication.
C. natural selection.
D. gender typing.

b
170. Evolutionary psychologists are most directly concerned with the impact of ________ on behavior.
A. gender schemas
B. collectivism
C. genetic predispositions
D. peer influence

c
171. An evolutionary psychologist would be likely to suggest that human preferences for sweet-tasting foods
A. have hindered human reproduction.
B. are genetically predisposed.
C. vary widely across cultures.
D. are influenced by gender schemas.

b
172. The principles of evolutionary psychology would suggest that parents are genetically predisposed to experience
the strongest grief over the deaths of their
A. infant sons.
B. infant daughters.
C. adolescent sons.
D. adolescent daughters.

c
173. Which of the following terms refers to the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people
define male and female?
A. schema
B. gender
C. genome
D. Y chromosome

b
174. Compared with men, women are ________ likely to initiate sex and ________ likely to think about sex.
A. less; more
B. more; more
C. less; less
D. more; less

c
175. When male and female student research assistants at Florida State University sexually propositioned an attractive
person of the opposite sex, their invitations were accepted by
A. half or more of the men but virtually no women.
B. a sizable minority of men but virtually no women.
C. half or more of the men and a sizable minority of women.
D. a sizable minority of both men and women.

a
176. Compared with women, men are more likely to
A. report low levels of marital satisfaction.
B. smile at members of the opposite sex.
C. perceive simple friendliness as a sexual come-on.
D. attribute their first sexual behaviors to feelings of affection.

c
177. Men rape women much more frequently than women rape men. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely
to explain this in terms of sex differences in
A. individualism.
B. reproductive capacity.
C. extraversion.
D. body size.

b
178. Professor Archibald suggests that men are more likely than women to initiate casual sex because this has
historically served to be a more successful reproductive strategy for men than for women. The professor’s
suggestion best illustrates a(n) ________ theory.
A. social learning
B. evolutionary
C. role
D. Freudian

b
179. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that 40-year-old men will marry women who are
________ than they are.
A. less physically attractive
B. more sexually experienced
C. younger
D. more aggressive toward sexual rivals

c
180. Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that men are ________ likely than women to prefer mates with a
fertile-looking appearance and ________ likely than women to prefer mates with wealth and social status.
A. more; more
B. less; less
C. more; less
D. less; more

c
181. Ginger wants to marry someone who will provide financial security for her children. Evolutionary psychologists
would most likely attribute Ginger’s motivation to
A. gender schemas.
B. genetic predispositions.
C. gender typing.
D. individualism.

b
182. Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to be criticized for
A. providing hindsight explanations for human behaviors.
B. overemphasizing humans’ capacity to learn and adapt to a variety of environments.
C. underestimating gender differences in mate selection.
D. overestimating cultural differences in human sexual behaviors.

a
183. Critics of evolutionary psychology would be most likely to suggest that it has difficulty accounting for
A. differences in the behavior patterns of males and females.
B. similarities in the behavior patterns of males and females.
C. differences in the behavior patterns of Asians and Americans.
D. similarities in the behavior patterns of Asians and Americans.

c
184. A stimulating environment is most likely to facilitate the development of a child’s
A. individualism.
B. genome.
C. temperament.
D. neural connections.

d
185. Unused neural connections in the brain are reduced through a process of
A. mutation.
B. heritability.
C. collectivism.
D. pruning.

d
186. Carlos was born with cataracts in both eyes. Even though they were removed when he was 5, his lack of visual
experiences during early childhood makes it likely that he has experienced
A. degeneration of neural connections in visual reception areas of the brain.
B. an inability to develop heritable traits.
C. difficulty incorporating new experiences into existing schemas.
D. a massive loss of sensory neurons.

a
187. Research on brain development suggests that repeated learning experiences seem to
A. strengthen neural connections at the location that processes the experiences.
B. reduce the number of brain cells needed to effectively process information.
C. promote the formation of the brainstem but have no effect on the formation of the cortex.
D. have no effect on the structure of neural tissue.

a
188. Parents should not take too much blame for the failures and shortcomings of their children because
A. their childrearing mistakes simply reflect that they were not properly raised by their own parents.
B. children typically fail on purpose in order to establish a healthy independence from parents.
C. childrearing practices have little effect on children’s beliefs and values.
D. parental behavior is only one of many factors that influence children’s behavior.

d
189. The remarkable academic and vocational successes of the children of refugee “boat people” from Vietnam and
Cambodia best illustrate the importance of
A. individualism.
B. temperament.
C. family environment.
D. personal space.

c
190. Children’s English accents are more likely to be influenced by their
A. peers than by their parents.
B. temperament than by their gender.
C. X chromosome than by their Y chromosome.
D. biological race than by their social environment.

a
191. Parents can most effectively increase their influence on their children by
A. encouraging their children to achieve athletic success.
B. helping to select their children’s neighborhood and schools.
C. spacing the birth of their children over a large number of years.
D. encouraging them to value individualism.

b
192. By inventing the custom of potato washing and passing it on to their peers and offspring, young chimpanzees are
exhibiting a basic form of
A. temperament.
B. collectivism.
C. gender schemas.
D. culture.

d
193. By inventing customs and passing them on to their peers and offspring, chimpanzees exhibit the rudiments of
A. temperament.
B. culture.
C. personal space.
D. heritability.

b
194. People are most likely to notice the impact of environmental influences on behavior when confronted by
A. identical twins.
B. gender schemas.
C. cultural diversity.
D. human temperaments.

c
195. The rules of a culture for accepted and expected behavior are
A. stereotypes.
B. norms.
C. gender schemas.
D. temperaments.

b
196. The practice of covering your mouth when you cough best illustrates the impact of
A. genetic predispositions.
B. gender schemas.
C. personal space.
D. norms.

d
197. Social norms have been found to
A. facilitate smooth social interaction.
B. vary from one culture to another.
C. free people from uncertainty about how they ought to behave.
D. do all of these things.

d
198. Even though many chairs in the library study area are unoccupied, Wang chooses to sit right next to Annest.
Annest is most likely to feel uncomfortable because Wang has violated her
A. gender schema.
B. personal space.
C. temperament.
D. gender identity.

b
199. In which of the following countries do people generally prefer to maintain the largest personal space?
A. France
B. England
C. Mexico
D. Saudi Arabia

b
200. In comparison to 40 years ago, American women today are more likely to marry for the sake of
A. economic advantage.
B. reproductive success.
C. gender identity.
D. love.

d
201. Interdependence is to ________ as independence is to ________.
A. gender schemas; gender typing
B. nurture; nature
C. chromosomes; genes
D. collectivism; individualism

d
202. Social roles are especially likely to be central to people’s self-identity in ________ cultures.
A. individualist
B. ethnically diverse
C. collectivist
D. democratic

c
203. Collectivism is most likely to be emphasized in
A. North America.
B. China.
C. Europe.
D. Australia.

b
204. In a collectivist culture, individuals are likely to avoid
A. displaying personal humility.
B. embarrassing other people.
C. prolonging conversations.
D. all of these behaviors.

b
205. Compared with those in cultures that value individualism, people in collectivist cultures are especially likely to
value personal
A. modesty.
B. privacy.
C. freedom.
D. achievements.

a
206. Compared with those living in individualist cultures, people in collectivist cultures are likely to experience
A. more privacy and less loneliness.
B. less privacy and less loneliness.
C. more privacy and more loneliness.
D. less privacy and more loneliness.

b
207. One would not observe unusually high rates of divorce in cultures that promote
A. collectivism.
B. ethnic diversity.
C. personal privacy.
D. individual human rights.

a
208. Compared with Asian parents, North American parents today place
A. more emphasis on obedience and less emphasis on family loyalty.
B. less emphasis on obedience and more emphasis on family loyalty.
C. more emphasis on obedience and more emphasis on family loyalty.
D. less emphasis on obedience and less emphasis on family loyalty.

d
209. Parents in Westernized cultures are more likely than parents in Asian cultures to encourage children to value
A. nonconformity.
B. gender roles.
C. cultural traditions.
D. enduring friendships.

a
210. Compared with children raised in Westernized cultures, children in many Asian cultures grow up with a strong
sense of
A. self-consciousness.
B. gender identity.
C. self-esteem.
D. social connectedness.

d
211. Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that
A. differences among cultural groups largely reflect genetic differences among racial groups.
B. developmental processes are highly similar among individuals raised in different cultures.
C. differences among cultural groups are greater than person-to-person differences within cultural groups.
D. gender differences in behavior result from differences in biology rather than from differences in life

b
212. Compared with the average man, the average woman is
A. less likely to become sexually re-aroused immediately after orgasm.
B. more likely to commit suicide.
C. less likely to express emotions freely.
D. more vulnerable to depression and anxiety.

d
213. Research on gender and aggression indicates that
A. women admit to feeling more hostility than do men.
B. in laboratory experiments, men and women are equally likely to give others what they believe are painful
electric shocks.
C. throughout the world, males are more likely than females to commit violent crimes.
D. all of these statements are true.

c
214. The gender gap in aggression is LEAST likely to pertain to ________ another person.
A. spreading false rumors about
B. physically hitting
C. poisoning
D. shooting

a
215. Gender differences in physical aggression are greatest in cultures characterized by
A. individualism.
B. the pruning process.
C. gender inequality.
D. extraversion.

c
216. In a group discussion, women are ________ likely than men to express support for others’ opinions. As group
leaders, women are ________ likely than men to promote a democratic leadership style.
A. less; more
B. more; more
C. less; less
D. more; less

b
217. During a group conversation, men are more likely than women to
A. stare at other group members.
B. interrupt other speakers.
C. talk assertively.
D. behave in all of these ways.

d
218. On extended visits to foreign countries, you would be most likely to observe
A. more men than women in political leadership positions.
B. women earning the same amount of money as men.
C. men and women equally involved in child care.
D. men and women equally involved in violent crime.

a
219. Compared with men, women are more likely to show obvious signs of
A. gender typing.
B. temperament.
C. interdependence.
D. self-esteem.

c
220. Male self-identity is to ________ as female self-identity is to ________.
A. norms; roles
B. X chromosome; Y chromosome
C. gender typing; gender schemas
D. independence; interdependence

d
221. Compared with men, women are more likely to talk with others to
A. communicate solutions.
B. explore relationships.
C. demonstrate leadership skills.
D. express their unique opinions.

b
222. A study of phone communication in France indicated that women make ________ phone calls than men and stay
connected for a ________ period of time than men do when talking to other men.
A. more; longer
B. fewer; shorter
C. more; shorter
D. fewer; longer

a
223. Women report that their friendships with women are ________ enjoyable and intimate than their friendships
with men. Men report that their friendships with men are ________ enjoyable and intimate than their friendships
with women.
A. more; less
B. less; more
C. more; more
D. less; less

a
224. As compared to women, men are typically
A. more socially independent and less interested in religion.
B. less socially independent and more interested in religion.
C. more socially independent and more interested in religion.
D. less socially independent and less interested in religion.

a
225. A baby girl receives a(n)
A. Y chromosome from her father.
B. Y chromosome from her mother.
C. Y chromosome from her father and mother.
D. X chromosome from her father and mother.

d
226. The prenatal development of the external male sex organs is stimulated by
A. gender schemas.
B. the X chromosome.
C. testosterone.
D. gender typing.

c
227. Gender differences in spatial perception skills are consistent with evidence that part of the
A. frontal lobes is thicker in men than in women.
B. parietal cortex is thicker in men than in women.
C. frontal lobes is thicker in women than in men.
D. parietal cortex is thicker in women than in men.

b
228. Genetically female children exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development subsequently exhibit
more “tomboyish” behaviors than most girls. To avoid overestimating the influence of prenatal hormones on
these behaviors, we should note that these children
A. have unusually reactive temperaments.
B. may be treated more like boys because they frequently look masculine.
C. are affected by a variety of random errors in gene replication.
D. develop a more masculine brain-wiring pattern prior to birth.

b
229. A genetically female child who receives excess testosterone during prenatal growth is subsequently likely to
develop
A. an unusually strong heterosexual orientation.
B. a female gender role, but a male gender identity.
C. a male body with both X and Y chromosomes, unless there is corrective surgery.
D. more aggressive behavior patterns than most girls.

d
230. Sets of expected behaviors for males and for females are called
A. gender identities.
B. gender roles.
C. sexual norms.
D. gender types.

b
231. Maria has always taken responsibility for preparing family meals because she learned that this was expected of
women. Her behavior best illustrates the importance of
A. sex chromosomes.
B. natural selection.
C. temperament.
D. gender roles.

d
232. It is most likely that in many cultures women’s leadership responsibilities have been limited by their
A. gender identity.
B. sex hormones.
C. gender roles.
D. individualism.

c
233. A person’s sense of being male or female is his or her gender
A. identity.
B. role.
C. type.
D. schema.

a
234. The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called
A. heritability.
B. behavior genetics.
C. gender typing.
D. gender identification.

c
235. The impact of rewards and punishments on gender typing is most clearly emphasized by
A. evolutionary psychology.
B. collectivism.
C. behavior genetics.
D. social learning theory.

d
236. Elton responds to his daughter’s fistfight with, “Good girls don’t fight!” but when his son has a fistfight he says,
“Did you win?!” The role of Elton’s reactions in the gender typing of his children would be of most direct
interest to
A. collectivists.
B. behavior geneticists.
C. social learning theorists.
D. evolutionary psychologists.

c
237. The tendency to classify various occupations as masculine or feminine has often led men and women to limit
themselves to an unnecessarily restricted range of career options. This best illustrates the impact of
A. temperament.
B. the X chromosome.
C. gender schemas.
D. the pruning process.

c
238. Children’s tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely to facilitate the
process of
A. behavior genetics.
B. individualism.
C. gender typing.
D. natural selection.

c
239. Some children become gender typed because they categorize nearly all objects and people as either masculine
and feminine. This best illustrates the importance of
A. collectivism.
B. gender schemas.
C. sex chromosomes.
D. personal space.

b
240. An integrated understanding of gender differences in behavior in terms of gender norms, sex-related hormones,
and individual expectations regarding gender-appropriate behavior is most clearly provided by
A. the pruning process.
B. collectivism.
C. a biopsychosocial approach.
D. evolutionary psychology.

c
241. By insisting that humans are “nothing but” products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of
undermining
A. collectivism.
B. individual responsibility.
C. natural selection.
D. gender identity.

b

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