Globalization and Diversity Ch 3,4 &5

1) What is the source of the place-name, “Caribbean”?
Derived from the name of native peoples from the area known as Caribs?
2) What is the rimland of the Caribbean? – PG 142 – R
Includes Balize and Guianas, Carribean coast of Central and South America
3) Why hasn’t the Caribbean Sea supported large commercial fishing operations? – PG 142 – R
Quantities of any one species is not large enough
4) At what wind speed does a tropical disturbance become a hurricane? – PG 145 – L
74 MPH
6) In which Caribbean country did the 2005 Hurricane Dennis have the most devastating effect? – PG 145 – L
Cuba
7) What practice was most responsible for the deforestation of the islands of the Caribbean? – PG 145 R and 146- L
Europeans mainly removed them for sugar cane fields
8) According to your text, how did European colonialists in the Caribbean view forests? – PG – L
Unproductive
9) In which part of the Caribbean is the forest cover largely intact? – PG – R
Puerto Rico
10) Beginning in the seventeenth century, the Caribbean forests were removed for all of the following purposes, EXCEPT (ship building, to clear land for sugarcane cultivation, fuel for sugar processing, Timber for home building, the export of tropical hardwoods). – PG – R
The export of tropical hardwoods
11) How much of its original forest cover has Haiti lost? PG -R
97% , only 3% remains
12) On which island of the Caribbean did HIV/AIDS first appear? PG – L
Haiti
13) What is the approximate population of the Caribbean? PG 149 – R
44 Million
14) Which pattern of emigration from the Caribbean is LEAST likely to occur?
A Haitian migrates to Liverpool, England ?
15) Which Caribbean countries have the lowest rates of natural increase in the region? – PG 150 – L
Cuba and Puerto Rico
16) Which U.S. city has become the destination of choice for Cubans migrating to the United States? – PG 150 – R
Miami Florida
17) What percentage of the people in Haiti between the ages of 15 and 49 are infected with the HIV/AIDS virus? – PG 150 – R
1.9% of the population
18) Which of the following is NOT believed to be a cause of the high rate of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean? – PG 150 – L
Tourism and Prostitution
19) What is the Caribbean diaspora? – PG 150 – R
The economic flight of the Caribbean people across the globe
21) What was the most common number of crops grown under the plantation system of agriculture? – PG 151 – L
One. Mono-crop production
22) Why were many cities of the Caribbean surrounded by walls? – PG 152 – L
Spanish Caribbean cities were laid on grid pattern and susceptible to counter European raids
24) What is creolization? – PG 155 – L
Blending of African, European, and some Amerindian
25) Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons for treating the Caribbean as a region that is distinct from Latin America? – PG 140 – R
The reason it is lies within its distinct cultural and economic history
26) What element of plantation life was missing from the Caribbean when Europeans established the plantation economy there? – PG 155 – L
Labor / Indentured labor
27) What is “indentured labor”? – PG 155 – L
Workers contracted to labor on estates for a set period of time, often several years
28) Maroon societies were composed of which group of people? – PG 154 – R
Groups of runaway slaves
29) By the middle 1800s, when most colonial governments in the Caribbean began to free slaves, they sought indentured laborers from which other world region(s)? – PG 155 – L
Often from South, Southeast and east Asia
30) From which country did the indentured workers who migrated to Guyana and Trinidad come? –PG 155 – L
India
31) From which part of Africa did the majority of slaves who were brought to the Caribbean come?–PG 154 – figure
West Africa, especially Gold Coast (now Ghana), Bight of Biafra (now Nigeria) Angola, and southern Africa
32) What are Maroon societies -PG 154 – R
Hidden settlements of escaped slaves existed wherever slavery was practiced
33) In which Caribbean country is the Santeria religion most common? – PG 155 – L
Cuba
34) What well-known form of music is most closely associated with the Caribbean?—PG 155 – R
Reggea, calypso, meringue, rumba, zouk, steel drums
35) What is the most common language in the Caribbean? – PG 155 -L
Spanish
36) By the early twentieth century, which foreign country was dominant in the Caribbean?
United States
37) What was the name of the official United States policy that held that the United States would not tolerate European military involvement in the Western Hemisphere? – PG 158 – R
Monroe Doctrine
38) Which of the following is TRUE of Cuba? (1990, the country denounced communism, Since 1995 the country has had multi-party democracy, Raul Castro succeeded his brother Fidel Castro as President in 2008, It has the fastest growing population in the Caribbean, in 2001 Cuba launched a failed invasion of the U.S. )
Raul Castro succeeded his brother Fidel Castro as President in 2008
in 2001 Cuba launched a failed invasion of the U.S.
40) Which country runs the Latin American School of Medicine (ELAM) that trains doctors from the Americas? – PG 160 – R
Cuba
41) During this country’s Operation Bootstrap, island leaders encouraged U.S. investment by offering cheap labor, local tax breaks, and, most importantly, federal tax exemptions. – PG 163 – L
Puerto Rico
42) What was the name of the initiative designed to launch rapid industrialization in Puerto Rico?–PG 13 – L
Operation Bootstrap
43) Historically, what crop has been the most important one in the Caribbean?
Sugar Cane
44) As of 2001, how many Free Trade Zones were there in the Dominican Republic? – PG 163 – R
50
45) The rise of offshore banking in the Caribbean is most closely associated with ________, which began this industry in the 1920s. – PG 164 – L
Bahamas
47) This city is now the largest home port for cruise lines and the second largest cruise-ship port in the world in terms of total visitors.—PG 165 – L
Bahamas
48) The ________ basis of Caribbean households is often singled out as a distinguishing characteristic of the region. – PG 166 – R
Matriarchal (female-dominated)
50) What factor has prevented Caribbean countries from reaping the full benefits of their extensive investment in education? – PG 168 – L
Most leave the Caribbean – Brain Drain
Beneath which part of the United States is its largest aquifer, the Ogallala Aquifer, located?- PG 72 L
Great Plains
What are the primary compounds found in acid rain? – PG 73 L
Sulfer Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides
What type of pollution is the greatest cause of acid rain?- PG 73 R
Atmospheric Pollution
Which North American region is complex, and is made up of drowned river valleys, bays, swamps, and low barrier islands? – PG 74- R
Atlantic Coastline
Which North American region lies west and north of the Piedmont and is an internally complex zone of higher and rougher country reaching altitudes of 3,000-6,000 – PG 74 – R feet?
Appalachian Highlands
In what region of the United States is the Piedmont located?- PG 69 – MAP
Southeast
Which North American region features mountain-building, alpine glaciation, and erosion?- PG 74 – R
West
Which North American region is the transition zone between nearby flat lowlands and steep mountain slopes?- PG 74 -R
Piedmont region
What areas of North America would be most vulnerable to climate change?PG 77 – L
Coastal localities – especially low lying zones in the Arctic, along the East Coast, and in the Gulf of Mexico
Currently, how many people live in the North American Region?- PG 77 – R
345 million
What region of the United States contains the country’s densest population settlement?- PG 78 – R
Megalopolis
Where is Megalopolis located? – PG 78 – R
NYC – 22 million
Boston – 7.6 million
Baltimore / Wash DC – 8.6 million
Philadelphia – 6.5 million
When did the third stage of North America’s settlement end? – PG 79 – R
Just after 1910
Cultural geographers estimate that Native American populations in 1500 c.e. at ________ for the continental United States and another 1.2 million for Canada, Alaska, Hawaii, and Greenland – PG 79 – R
3.2 million
During what period of time has the Sunbelt region of the United States grown most quickly? – PG 81 – L
Since the 1970s the southern states From Carolinas to TX grew more than NE and Midwest.
1990’s – GA, FL, TX and NC grew by more than 20%.
Dallas Ft Worth, Houston, Atlanta had some of the fastest metropolitan grown between 2000-2010
Today what percentage of the North American population is urban?– PG 81 – L
80%
Many city planners and developers are involved in ________, an urban design movement stressing higher-density, mixed-use, pedestrian-scaled neighborhoods where residents can walk to work, school, and entertainment – PG 82 – R
New Urbanism
During which era of the Historical Evolution of the U.S. City did the city first develop a star-shaped pattern?- PG 81 – R
Streetcar Suburbs
During which era of the Historical Evolution of the U.S. City did suburban growth begin? – – PG 81 – R
Technological Revolution in the 1920s – The mass production of cars.
What do we call the situation wherein metropolitan areas sprawl in all directions and suburbs take on many of the characteristics of traditional downtowns?– PG 81 – R
Urban decentralization
This is the process involving the displacement of lower-income residents of central-city neighborhoods by higher-income residents, the improvement of deteriorated innercity landscapes, and the construction of shopping complexes, sports and entertainment attractions, and convention centers in selected downtown locations. – PG 82 – L
Gentrification
What do we call new suburbs that include retailing, industry, office, and entertainment activities, but are less connected to the central city, and more connected to other suburban centers? – PG 82 – L
Edge Cities
Today, approximately how many undocumented immigrants live in the US?— PG 85- L
Approx 11 -12 Million
What percentage of today’s Toronto population is foreign-born? _______________– PG 86 – L
44%
What term refers to the situation in which a group of people with a common background and history identify with one another? – P 84 – R
Ethnicity
This is the process in which immigrants were absorbed by the larger host society- PG 84 – R
Cultural Assimilation
An estimated ________ Mexican-born residents (more than 10 percent of Mexico’s population) now live in the United States.- PG 85 – L
12 million
Almost half of U.S. Hispanics live in this state.- PG 85 figure
California
During which period did the largest number of immigrants to the United States come from Southern and Eastern Europe? == PG 85 – L
Phase 3 – 1870-1920 – during industrialization in the US, offering escape to political strife and poor economies in S and E Europe.
What Canadian province has a majority of French-Canadian citizens?- PG 87 – figure
Quebec
In which of the places would one find a concentrated Cajun culture?– PG 86 – R and PG 87 figure
Acadia – southwestern Louisiana
What cultural homeland is home to the Inuit? – PG 91 – L
Quebec / Eskimo North American Indian and Inuit populations — in both United States and Canada
More than ________ percent of Quebec’ population speaks French, and language remains the “cultural glue” that holds the homeland together — PG 86 – R
80%
What is the “cultural glue” that holds Quebec together? – PG 86 – R
The French language
Which language may soon surpass English as the leading global language of Internet users?
Spanish
What waterway opened up the Great Lakes to improved global trade connections? – PG 90 – L
St. Lawrence Seaway
The United States consumes about how many times as much oil as it produces?PG 93 – R
10 million barrels per day – about half of the total consumption
What employment sector is identified with information processing?- PG 95 – L
Quaternary
What employment sector is identified with natural resource extraction, including mining and agriculture?-
PG 95 – L

Primary
46) What employment sector is identified with services?- PG 95 – L
Tertiary
What are the boundaries of Latin America? PG 102 – R
Rio Grande (called Rio Bravo in Mexico) to Tierra del Fuego
How many residents does a city need in its metropolitan area to qualify as a megacity?
10 Million
What is the greatest threat to biodiversity in Latin America?
Global demand for natural resources?
Over the last 40 years, approximately what percentage of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest has been destroyed?
1/5th
Which Latin American country is most closely associated with deforestation?
Brazil
What percentage of the world’s plant and animal species are found in the Amazon rainforest?
At least 50%
What is grassification?
Conversion of a rain forest into pasture
What city in Latin America was designed to be, and is an example of a sustainable city?
Curitiba
What is the source of approximately 70 percent of Mexico City’s water?
Wells were dug to tap into the freshwater aquifer – apprx 70% of the water of the city is from the aquifer
What is the major environmental problems is associated with Mexico City and Santiago?
Air pollution
What is the name of the mountain chain that extends the length of South America’s west coast?
Andes
What is the most distinctive characteristic of the Amazon River?
Largest river by volume and area in the world
Drains 8 countries
Home to the largest rain forest
How long are the Andes Mountains?
5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers)
What are the two largest cities in Latin America?
Sao Paulo and Mexico City
Historically, these places have been underused as areas of settlement in Latin America, especially compared to settlement patterns in other regions.
Along major rivers
Where are the people of Latin America concentrated? – PG 113 – L
Major population clusters Central Am / Mexico are in the interior plateaus and valleys
What material(s) provided the initial wealth of many countries in the Andes Mountains?
Silver, gold, tin, and iron
What is El Niño? – PG 111
Occurs when warm Pacific current arrives along the normally cold coastal waters of Ecuador and Peru in Dec, around Christmastime. Happens every few years
What country of Latin America has the region’s largest population?
Sao Paulo
What is urban primacy? – PG 114 – L
A condition in which a country has a primate city 3-4 times larger than any other city in the country
Urban primacy occurs when
The cities become hubs for communication and transportation ??
In the Latin American city model, what land use is located along the “spine”? – PG 114 – L
Elite spine = newer commercial and business development
Along the spine = superior services, roads, and transportation
Beside the spine = best residential zones, malls
What is the major reason for the preference for urban life in Latin America?
Higher social status and economic opportunities
A system wherein peasants farm small plots of land for their own subsistence is referred to as
Minifundia
In Latin America, what did agrarian reform accomplish? – PG 116 – L
Peasants demanding redistribution of land
What are a major reasons for the rural-to-urban migration in Latin America?
culture and economic factors, culture for ppl in cities had higher status and greater economic opportunity
Throughout most of the 20th century, Latin America experienced ________ population growth rates.
High
Which country in Latin America sends the largest number of legal immigrants to the United States?
Mexico
What is a mestizo? – PG 117 – R
People of mixed European and Indian ancestry
Why did Japanese people migrate to Latin America?
First migrated as agricultural workers (coffee estates)
Which country in South America has long attracted Bolivian and Paraguayan laborers?
Argentina
What evidence demonstrates the resilience of the Indian cultures in Latin America?
Language
What factor was most crucial to the survival of the remaining indigenous people of Latin America?
Land
Which Amerindian group lived in the Valley of Mexico, the site of modern day Mexico City?
Aztec
After a century-and-a-half of colonization, what was the size of the indigenous population of Latin America?
One – tenth the original size
What is the ethnicity of the majority of people in Latin America?
Complex ethnic bland has evolved
What language is the second-most common in Latin America? – PG 120 – R
2/3rd speak Spanish
1/3 speak Portuguese
Historically, what has been the policy of most countries regarding Indian languages in Latin America?
Until recently it was actively discouraged
Which of the following is an example of syncretic religion in Latin America? – PG 122 – L
Mayan practice of paying tribute to spirits of the underworld related to Catholic saints
Which European country had a territorial conflict with Argentina over the Falkland Islands in the early 1980s?
Great Britain
When the countries of Latin America regained their independence, who were the leaders?
Military takeovers are historically frequent – as are dictatorships
Since 1980 – democratic leaders are more common
What trade block is the most important one in Latin America?
Mercosur
Which of the following countries are members of the North American Free Trade Agreement?
US, Mexico, and Canada
What are Colombia’s FARC and ELN?
Guerilla groups
Approximately how many people today are employed in maquiladoras in Mexico?
Over 1 million
In recent years, what kind of economic activity has Costa Rica been attracting?
High – tech
By what name do we know the Mexican assembly plants that line the border between Mexico and the United States?
Maquiladores
With respect to the success of maquiladoras, which of the following is NOT one of Mexico’s competitive advantages?
Wages
Why did the number of people employed in Mexican maquiladoras begin to drop after 2001?
Since 2003 – china has been favored with lower wages
What Latin American country is the world leader in coffee production?
Brazil
What is dollarization? – PG 133 – R
Process in which a country adopts – in whole or in part – the US dollar as the official currency
What is dependency theory? – PG 131 R
The expansion of European capitalism created the regions’ underdevelopment.
What is import substitution?
?? is a trade and economic policy which advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.

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