Nutrition chapters 7-9

how are water soluble vitamins absorbed
directly into the blood
what is the function of vitamin A in the diet
eyesight/cornea improvement, gene regeneration, growth/strength in bones and teeth
what does vitamin D deficiency cause
bone pain, muscle weakness, increase blood pressure, depression
are infants born with adequate vitamin K
no, new borns are deficient
B vitamins work together as what
coenzymes
what are the fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
fat malabsorption diseases can bring about deficiencies of what
deficiencies of vitamins A, D, E, K
are water soluble vitamins stored
no, they are used and excreted
are water soluble vitamins leached out of foods
yes, when cooked
what are symptoms of vitamin A deficiency
decreased cell division, impaired immunity, exhaustion, night blindness
what food may cause vitamin A toxicity
supplements
a lack of beta carotene may cause
impaired immunity, exhaustion
what are the roles of vitamin D
calcium regulation, increased digestive absorption
vitamin D deficiency diseases include
rickets (kids), osteomalacia, osteoporosis
what are significant food sources of vitamin D
sardines, cereal (enriched) salmon
vitamin E serves as a what
antioxidant
where does much of our vitamin E consumption come from
veggie oils & products made from them
what is the main function of vitamin K
synthesis of blood
what are characteristics of water soluble vitamins
easily dissolvable, can be excreted by urine
what are the functions of vitamin C
collagen synthesis, increased immune system, increased iron absorption
what are good sources of vitamin C
orange juice, red and green peppers, brussel sprouts, broccoli
what is the thiamin deficiency called
beriberi
which B vitamin is especially important for women of childbearing
folate
water makes up what percentage of the body
60%
what is water necessary for
body processes- digestion, cleansing, coolant
what is the first sign of dehydration
low energy, thirst, sudden weight loss, dry skin, dry mouth
what are the major roles of calcium
bone and teeth formation
a person’s absorption of calcium varies based on ____ and ____
age, vitamin D status
what is the best source of phosphorus
animal meats
how much sodium do adults assume daily
3400 grams
what is the sodium vs potassium intake on processed food
higher sodium, lower potassium
what is the principle food source for chloride
salt
what impairs iron absorption
tea, phytates
how much water should a person consume in one day
male- 13 cups, female- 9 cups
why is water chlorination important
to kill disease-causing pathogens
what do calcium deficiencies result in
stops bone growth in kids, osteoporosis- adults
calcium absorption declines in the elderly because
reduced absorption, inadequate intake
what is osteoporosis often associated with
calcium deficiencies
how do you build maximum bone density
exercise
excess body fat is associated with an increased risk of what
type 2 diabetes, increased blood pressure, stroke, heart disease, cancers
excess fat of the _____ represents a greater risk to health than excess fat elsewhere in the body
abdomen
BMI of 25-30
overweight
factors which cause a higher BMR include
fat-free mass, fat mass, age, sex, hormones
the psychological desire to eat is referred to as
appetite
which foods sustain longer than other foods
high in fiber and protein
a very low carbohydrate diet may be accompanied by what
ketosis
high protein, low carbohydrate diets raise risk of
ketosis, kidney problems, high cholesterol, osteoporosis

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