a) the period after disease diagnosis when a treatment plan is developed.
b) the period of post-acute treatment care planning to prevent future complications.
c) behavioral, genetic, environmental, and other factors that may contribute to an individual’s likelihood of contracting a disease.
d) prenatal assessment of potential fetal disorders.
a) use of experimental treatments when traditional treatments have failed.
b) health coaching by non-medical professionals.
c) rehabilitation and maximizing remaining functional capacity when a disease or condition has occurred with residual damage to physical functionality.
d) periodic disease screening for high-risk populations.
a) improvements in population health will require merging public health concepts into personal medical care approaches.
b) low-income persons’ tendency to undervalue healthcare services.
c) most low-income persons will not subscribe to the ACA’s insurance plans or Medicaid.
d) the ACA’s emphasis on insured prevention and wellness services is unappealing to most Americans.
a) a matrix used by epidemiologists and health services planners that places everything known about a particular disease or condition in the sequence of its origin and progression when untreated.
b) predictable outcomes of a particular condition related to the aging process.
c) documentation of a disease’s earliest historical recognition.
d) disease progression in the pre-antibiotic era.
a) complicated in terms of the ways that patients paid for treatment.
b) strict contracted arrangements between physicians and patients.
c) interactive and supportive of patient involvement in treatment decisions.
d) personal, confidential, and simple, with payments based on patients’ ability to pay.
a) Market-oriented changes, competition, and privately organized managed care programs
b) Government efforts to control all aspects of health services delivery
c) Federal initiatives to limit private insurers’ entry into the health insurance marketplace
d) Private business initiatives to control government programs for the undeserved
a) appreciate the reasons why health professionals deserve superiority.
b) are bonded with each other in a joint provider-consumer mindset.
c) increasingly engage in “shared decision-making.”
d) rely on the legal system to determine boundaries of patient/provider decision-making.
b) disability limitation.
c) early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
d) health education and specific protections such as immunizations.
a) Americans’ reliance on company-based wellness programs.
b) their payment of a high proportion of healthcare costs.
c) None of these is correct.
d) the political influence of individual, large company owners.
a) early detection and prompt treatment of a disease or condition to achieve an early cure, if possible, or to slow progression, prevent complications, and limit disability.
b) public education to help reduce disease risk factors.
c) efforts to return a patient to the level of functioning prior to a disease episode.
d) public health measures to limit the spread of an infectious disease.
can be an individual health care professional, a group, or an institution that delivers healthcare services and receives reimbursement directly from those services
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Art of 2010
1) How does new technology benefit the patient?
2) Is it worth the cost?
3) Are the new methods better?
4) Is treatment planning enhanced?
5) Is the outcome from disease better?
improvements in population health will require merging public health concepts into personal medical care approaches
behavioral, genetic, environmental and other factors that may contribute to an individual’s likelihood of contracting a disease
Children’s Health Insurance Program
health maintenance organization
the social security act of 1935
provide health insurance for low-income individuals
provide health insurance for older Americans
shelter older adults, the dying, orphans, and vagrants and protect community residents from contagiously sick and mentally ill persons
Board of Directors
ensure that the patient understands the risks, benefits, and alternatives of the procedures
diagnosis related groups (DRGs)
care that does not require an overnight stay in a hospital
1) care for those without private physicians
2) teaching site for medical residents
3) primary care services
care provided on a walk-in basis for acute illness and injury that is either beyond the scope of or availability of a primary care practice or retail clinic
American Medical Association
student apprenticeship with European-trained physicians and on-the-job experience in one of the few existing hospitals
improving the quality of medical education and practice
complexes of medical schools and other health professional schools, such as nursing and allied health affiliated with each other and with teaching hospitals and other research and clinical facilities
accreditation council for graduate medical education
increasingly complex health insurance and information technology demands on private practice
an accredited training program of at least 3 years post-medical school that prepares physicians to practice in a medical specialty
is used together with conventional medical treatment, while alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medical treatment
the national institutes of health creating the national center for complementary and alternative medicine (NCCAM), later renamed as the national center for complementary and integrative health (NCCIH)
a mater’s degree
a) time, effort, and money.
b) technology, policies and procedures, and culture.
c) competency, character, and courage.
d) training, testing, and evaluation.
a) cultural sensitivity training among organizations.
b) health information exchanges (HIEs).
c) the Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED).
d) monolithic architecture.
a) criteria defined by the Office of the National Coordinator in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services that require meeting time-limited objectives in order to quality for incentive payments under the HITECH Act.
b) physicians and other providers making electronic health records accessible to patients.
c) physicians and hospital managers passing federal examinations on electronic health record creation and applications.
d) efficient applications of electronic health records under internal criteria established within physician practices and hospitals.
a) requires physicians to adhere to recommended schedules of preventive services based on patient diagnosis.
b) allows physicians to list orders for patient treatment including prescriptions in an electronic health record.
c) substitutes computerized information for physician judgments.
d) matches individual patient data with a computerized knowledge base such as evidence-based clinical guidelines to remind physicians to do things for patients they might have forgotten about.
a) widespread recognition of technology’s contribution to the quality of patient care.
b) financial incentive programs that reward “meaningful use” or the use of e-prescriptions.
c) results achieved by electronic health records in reducing expenditures.
d) patients’ demands for electronic access to their personal health records.
a) teaching sites for medical residents.
b) care for those without private physicians.
c) All of these are correct.
d) primary-care services organized similarly to private physician offices.
a) The personal physician leads a team of individuals in the practice who take responsibility for the ongoing care of patients
b) Care is coordinated and integrated across all elements of the delivery system (subspecialty, hospital, home, nursing home), facilitated by electronic record registries
c) Use of electronic health information technology for patient communication is discouraged
d) Providing for all of a patient’s healthcare needs or appropriately arranging care with other qualified professionals
a) ensure that the patient understands the risks, benefits, and alternatives of the procedure.
b) shield the patient from information about possible negative side effects.
c) protect themselves from malpractice claims.
d) ensure that family members agree with the patient’s decision.
a) Physician freedom from hospital facility scheduling
b) All of these are correct.
c) Consumer preferences
d) Physician profit-making opportunities
a) Parallel structured
b) Horizontally integrated
c) Vertically integrated
d) Laterally integrated
a) for fast treatment of easy-to-diagnose conditions.
b) provided on a walk-in, extended-hour basis for acute illness and injury that is either beyond the scope of or availability of a primary care practice or retail clinic.
c) absorbing overflows of patients from crowded hospital emergency departments.
d) that does not require the services of a physician.
a) board of directors.
b) chief executive officer.
c) medical staff organization.
d) department of quality management.
a) development of high-technology hospital care.
b) passage of 1973 HMO legislation.
c) specialization of clinical practice.
d) enactment of private and public insurance reimbursement for hospital care.
a) health services requiring ambulance transport.
b) health services in primary care doctors’ offices.
c) healthcare services that require patients be able to “walk in” to the site of service.
d) care that does not require an overnight stay in a hospital.
a) provide congregate sites for training of nurses.
b) shelter older adults, the dying, orphans, and vagrants and protect community residents from contagiously sick and mentally ill persons.
c) support scientific research.
d) provide entrepreneurial enterprises for business-minded physicians.
a) No rational basis existed for chart selection to permit extrapolation of sample findings to the larger patient population
b) When deficiencies were identified, reviewers were reluctant to pass judgment on their colleagues
c) Reviewers used implicit standards to make qualitative judgments
d) Hospital administrators influenced how reviewers were selected
a) Hospital medical staff organization
b) Quality improvement organization (QIO)
c) American Hospital Association
d) Hospital board of directors
a) electronic health records.
b) board-certified emergency medicine physicians.
c) physician assistants.
d) MRI diagnostic equipment.
a) Measures of hospital quality will become more transparent and available to the public
b) Primary doctors will be the system leaders, not specialists
c) Focus on population health status with community-based care delivered in multiple provider sites
d) Almost every American will have health insurance coverage
a) Deficiencies in the systems of care
b) Distracted, fatigued physicians
c) Medical equipment failures
d) Inadequate nurse training
a) child and adult immunizations.
b) school-based pediatric medical care.
c) specialty services for high-risk pregnant women.
d) chronic disease screening.
a) empirical data.
b) diagnosis related groups (DRGs).
c) prospective patient categories (PPCs).
d) costs of resources used.
a) observe and monitor the most seriously ill patients.
b) use a period of 6-24 hours to triage, diagnose, treat, and monitor patients with common complaints.
c) assess patients with possible heart attacks or strokes.
d) assess frequent emergency department users.
a) Hospital outpatient service volume and revenues increased.
b) Hospitals sold their ambulatory services to physician groups.
c) New joint-business relationships with physicians rapidly developed.
d) Physicians became competitors with hospitals for the same lines of business.
a) hospital ambulatory clinics.
b) community-based clinics run by voluntary agencies.
c) private practice physicians’ offices.
d) government-operated health clinics.