Nursing 150 – Cultural Diversity and Spiritual Care (Test 1)

What is culture?
Shared beliefs, values, and behaviors that shape how we live within a society,
Defines social roles and interactions,
Includes habits and rituals specific to social groups,
Learned from both the family and the environment through many generations,
Shapes how groups view themselves within a population, and
Includes dominant and minority groups.
What are some common identifiers of a culture?
Ethnicity/Heritage
Race
Religion
Language
Behavioral patterns
Experiences
Physical Size, age, gender
Sexual Orientation
Disability
Socioeconomic and occupational status
Geographical location
What is subculture?
is a large group of people who are members of an even larger cultural group, but who have certain ethnic, occupational or physical characteristics that are not common to the larger culture
What is Cultural Diversity?
People of varying classifications that include race, nationality, religion, language, gender, sexual orientation, age, socioeconomic status, geographic location, and physical make-up
What affects a culture?
1. Cultural Assimilation (Acculturation)
-When minority groups/cultures within a population take on characteristics of the dominant culture so that the cultural difference that made the minority group different are lost.
.Examples: Language, diet, etc.
2. Biculturalism
-Two distinct cultural groups of unequal status and power within a society united by one economic and political structure.
3. Culture Shock
-Feelings of physical or psychological discomfort one feels when exposed to a different culture
Examples: Nude beaches, public bath houses, etc.
What is Cultural Sensitivity?
Understanding and awareness of cultural differences within a population
Name some Influences on cultural sensitivity:
1. Stereotyping
-Can be positive or negative
Example: All Germans are stoic when it comes to pain
2. Cultural imposition
-Everyone should conform to the dominant culture
3. Cultural blindness
-Ignoring cultural differences/lack of acknowledgement toward other cultures
4. Cultural conflict
– Awareness of cultural differences
How does culture affect healthcare?
1. Physiologic
Examples: Tay-Sachs disease and Eastern European Jews and Thalassemia and Mediterranean people
2. Psychological/Mental Health
Example: View of depression as a spiritual problem rather than a chemical imbalance in the brain
3. Reactions to pain
Examples: Silence versus extreme vocalization
4. Orientation to space and time
Personal space differs within different cultural groups
How does culture affect healthcare? (cont.)
5. Gender roles and decision making
-The patient may not be the decision maker,
-Decision making often falls to the elders of a culture or a person of the dominant gender within that culture
6. Language and communication
-Understanding of spoken language does not translate into reading comprehension of that same language,
-Verbal and non-verbal language differs from culture to culture,
-Some terms (medical) may not translate appropriately in other languages, and
-Certain members of a culture may never learn the language of the dominant culture
How does culture affect healthcare? (cont.)
7. Diet and Nutrition
-Patients may not eat because of the dietary differences versus a lack of appetite
8. Family Support
-Discussion of disease, health, illness, and wellness may be discussed differently with different family members
9. Socioeconomic factors
– Wealth and poverty are defined differently based on culture
Explain Culturally Competent Nursing:
1. Provide respectful care based on the patient’s values, preferences, and expressed needs/wishes
2. Maintain cultural and linguistic competence within the healthcare setting at all times
– Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 entitles everyone access to healthcare regardless of their ability to speak, read, or understand English
3. Develop a self awareness of your own cultural beliefs
4. Develop an understanding of your patient’s culture
Develop an understanding of patient’s expression of PAIN
Culturally Competent Nursing (cont.)
5. Accommodate for cultural practices within the healthcare setting
6. Respect the different roles within the family structure based upon cultural beliefs
7. Support and allow your patient to choose the best healthcare treatment plan based on his/her cultural beliefs
8. Seek knowledge from experts within a culture if you need further clarification
What are Goals of Culturally Competent Nursing?
Eliminate disparities in health and healthcare
Preserve human rights
Provide for social justice
Provide quality care
Provide safe and holistic care
What is involved in a Cultural Assessment?
Figure 11.1 Comprehensive Cultural Assessment inventory (Jensen pg 224)
Religious and spiritual beliefs
Nutrition practices
Family support
Meaning of health/wellness vs. disease/illness
Cultural practices related treatment
Sick role
Quality of life
True or False
Culture includes the beliefs, habits, likes and dislikes and customs and rituals learned from one’s families ?

True: Culture is defined as shares system of belief of values and behavioral expectations that provides social structure for daily living.
Spiritual Assessment:
Pertains to matters of the human soul
An integral part of one’s religion or self-directed path modeled after several different religions
Spiritual care within the health care context must be congruent with the patient’s spiritual beliefs
Church and religion play important roles in sustaining people’s development, national identity, and survival and must be treated as such
Evidence Based Critical Thinking involves:
Nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and interventions
An accurate and complete nursing assessment is an essential foundation for holistic nursing care
Use the patient assessment to implement new interventions, evaluate their effectiveness, and make a difference in the quality of patient care

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